发布文章

六级英语阅读文章的段落结构分析

2018-05-03 英语阅读

  一、时间顺序

  事件的发生、发展过程都是有时间的。在头脑中有了一个明确的时间顺序,也就是事件的连续性,有助于快速地理解和抓住中心思想。例如:

  Asmall,hand-propelledGermansubmarine,theBrand-taucher,sankin1851insixtyfeetofwater,withhercaptain,WilhelmBauer,andtwocrewmembersaboard.Herhullimmediatelybegantocollapseunderthepressureofthesea.CaptainBauer,whohadbuiltthetinycraft,knewthatifhecouldkeephistwocompanionsfrompanickingwhileallowingthewatertorisesteadilyinsideher,theinteriorandexteriorpressurewouldequalizeandtheywouldbeabletoopenthehatchandgotout.Theydid.

  二、地点顺序

  一切事件的发生、发展过程都有不同的地点,把这些地点联系起来,同样有助于快速地抓住中心思想,找到具体的事实与细节。

  三、事件的重要性的顺序

  有些段落的细节构成常常是次要的放在前面,重要的放在最后。了解重要性的先后次序同样有助于我们快速地找到并抓住中心思想。

  四、对比法

  文章中为了描述一种不熟悉的事物或观念,常常把它们与我们所熟悉的事物或观念想对比,或者把过去的事物与现在的事物相对比。如果熟悉作者的这种笔法,有助于使我们快速地捕捉到中心意思和具体细节。下面的例子中,有三个方面进行了比较:

  Whiletherearemanydifferencesbetweenhighschoolandcollege,I’dhavetosaythatthemostimportantonesallinvolvefreedom.Everyonehastoattendhighschool,atleastuntiltenthgrade,soveryoftenyoufindclasseswherethestudentsaren’tseriousaboutlearning.Collegeisexactlytheopposite.Peoplearetherevoluntarilybecausetheywanttolearnandimprovethemselves.Asaresultcollegestudentsaremuchmoreseriousandinterested.Anothermajordifferenceisthatcollegesdon’tenforcearbitraryrules.Inhighschoolyouneedapasstobeinthehallwayduringclass,andyoucan’tleaveaclassroomwithoutpermission.Ontheotherhand,collegestudentscangowheretheyplease.

  五、因果关系

  在说明文或议论文中,事物的因果关系常被用来作为展开段落的方法。先讲原因,后给结果或者是先给结果,后讲原因。还有一些段落在原因显而易见的情况下可以只集中说明结果;相反,还有一些段落则只涉及原因,例如:

  Mygrandfather’sfarmhasbecomemucheasiertomanageinrecentyears.HisprizeHolsteincows,forexample,arenowmilkedbyautomaticpumpsratherthanbyhand.Also,theeggshishenslayarehatchedinincubatorsinsteadofbythehensthemselves.Thetemperatureandhumidityinthehenhousesarecontrolledbythermostats,notbyNature’swhim;andtheamountoffoodhischickensgeteachdayisdeterminedbyacomputerratherthanbyafarmhand’sestimates.Allthatisleftforgrandfathertogo,hejokes,istositbackandpaythehugeelectricbills.

  六、分类

  分类是根据事物的特点分别归类。这样组合段落的目的是为了分清每一种类的性质。例如:

  Inferretingtheinterestsofpeopleinspace,weareawarethatthereareprobablythreereasons.Firstly,itisaplanoflookingforotherplacestoholdtheovercrowdedpopulationonthis

  earth.Secondly,itisthecuriosityofmankindtourgethescientistsfortheresearchwork,becausetheydesiretooeagerlythecomingofthedaywhentheycantravelfreelyinspace.Thirdly,weareremindedofthemineralsourceswhicharenotsufficienttoprovidefortheneedsontheearth,sowetryeveryefforttogotootherplanetsinthehopeforsearchingfornewresources

  七、一般到个别

  大多数的段落以主题句开头,开门见山,点明主题,然后给出具体细节,或是用理由和实例来论证主题。例如:

  Myambitionistogotocollege,butmyenvironmentdoesnotallowmetodoso.Myfatherhasbeeninsomedifficultyinsupportingmeeveninthemiddleschool,soitiscertainlyagreaterdifficultyforhimtopaymyexpensesincollege.AndIhavefivebrothersinschools.IfIgotocollege,theburdenwillbetooheavyformyfather.Moreover,Iampoorinscience,andperhapsthiswillpreventmefrombeingsuccessfullyassignedtheentranceofacollege.

  八、个别到一般

  这种段落是先给出具体细节,或是以理由和实例开头,而后用概述全段意思的一般性评论作为段落结尾。

  此外,还有定义法,这种方式是对某些词、术语或抽象概念下定义。使用段落下定义往往先把一个词限定为总属词类的一项,再把这个词项和同类中的其他项目相区别

上一篇:关于英语阅读范文 下一篇:英语阅读范文六篇