2017-07-19 公共英语



  Exercise 1

  Isabel has turned down two job offers in the past year. In 2006, she started her own consulting practice, but by 2008, most of her larger clients had to drop her because of the economy. In 2011, she was undertaking irregular assignments and knew she needed a steady job. The first job she considered was Director of HR for a company in Utah. After the initial interviews, she felt the job fit her except the location. Still, she flew west to meet the hiring manager. The hiring manager explained that Isabel was the top candidate for the job but that, before she continued with the process, she should better understand the firm`s culture. She directed Isabel to several videos of the company`s CEO, who regularly appear in front of the company in costume as part of moral building exercises and expected his senior leaders to do the same. “Even though I was desperate for a job, I knew I couldn`t do that,” Isabel says. She called the recruiter to turn down the job and explain that she didn`t feel a cultural fit.

  A few months later, she interviewed another job: a director of employee relations at a local university. After several interviews, the hiring manager told her the job was hers if she wanted it. The job has many positives: it was a low-stress environment, if offered great benefits, and the university was an employee-friendly place. But the job was relatively junior despite the tittle and

  Isabel worried it wouldn`t be challenging enough. Finally, she turned it down. “It would be great to have a paycheck and great benefits but I would definitely have trouble sleeping at night,” she says. In both cases, she frank with the hiring managers about why she wasn`t taking the jobs. “In the past, it felt like dating, I was worried about hurting people`s feelings,” she says. However, they appreciated her frankness and thanked her honesty. She says it was hard to turn down the jobs and

it was a risk for her financially but she felt she had to.


In 2011, Isabel______

A. did consulting now and then

B. found a job close to her home

C. refused several job interviews

D. ran a successful consulting firm


Isabel turned down the first job offer mainly because of its_______


B. culture

C. location

D. recruiter


Isabel was dissatisfied with the second job due to its_______

A. junior title

B. low benefits

C. Environment

D. lack of challenge


Isabel believed that her rejection of the jobs was______

A. Harmful

B. surprising

C. justifiable

D. troublesome

5. According to Isabel, it is important to______

A. look for jobs with little stress

B. look for jobs with great benefits

C. be truthful in declining job offers

D. be cautious in declining job offers

  Exercise 2

  You do not usually get something for nothing. Now, a new study reveals that the evolution of an improved learning ability could come at a particularly high price: an early death.

  Past experiments have demonstrated that it is relatively easy through selective breeding to make rats, honey bees and —that great favorite of researchers— fruit flies a lot better at learning. Animals that are better learners should be competitive and thus, over time, come to dominate a

  population by natural selection. But improved learning ability does not get selected amongst these animals in the wild. No one really understand why.

  Tadeuzs Kawecki and his colleagues at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland have measured the effects of improved learning on the lives of fruit flies. The flies were given two different fruit as egg-laying sites. One of these was laced with a bitter additive that could be detected only on contact. The flies were then given the same fruit but without an additive. Flies that avoided the fruit which had been bitter were deemed to have learned from their experience. Their children were reared and the experiments was run again.

  After repeating the experiment for 30 generations, the children of the learned flies were com-pared with normal flies. The researchers report in a forthcoming edition of Evolution that although learning ability could be bred into a population of fruit flies, it shortened their lives by 15%. When the researchers compared their learned flies to colonies selectively bred to live long lives, they found even greater differences. Whereas learned flies had reduced their life spans, the long-lived flies learned less well than even average flies.

  The authors suggest that evolving an improved learning ability may require a greater investment in the nervous system which takes resources away from processes that delay ageing. However, Dr. Kawecki thinks the effect could also be a by-product of greater brain activity increasing the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which can increase oxidation in the body and damage health.

  No one knows whether the phenomenon holds true for other animals. So, biologists, at least, still have a lot to learn.

  1. Past experiments prove selective breeding can make animals better_______

  A. CommandersB. Competitors

  C. survivorsD. learners

  2. In this experiment, scientists observed that________

  A. some flies avoided the fruit without an addictive

  B. some flies preferred the fruit with an addictive

  C. the eggs of the flies were not damaged

  D. the impact on the flies did not last long

  3. The forthcoming report says that_______

  A. long-lived flies are better at laying eggs

  B. long-lived flies are poorer in learning

  C. learned flies have a relatively long life

  D. learned flies live as long as average ones

  4. According to Dr.Kawecki, greater brain activity______

  A. reduces oxygen consumption

  B. regulates the nervous system

  C. speeds up the ageing process

  D. stabilizes the ageing process

  5. We learn from the text that_______

  A. the research findings need to be tested further

  B. biologists are doing similar research on other animals

  C. the animal world usually follows the same universal laws

  D. biologists are applying their findings to other areas

  Exercise 3

  Five-year-old Elia arrived at school with a big box of colored pencils. Her friend, Anna, offeted to exchange her set of markers for the brand-new pencils. Elia agreed, but soon discovered that the markers were dried up. "That's not fair!" cried Elia to her teacher. “I want my new pencils back.”

  After some tears and negotiation, the teacher helped the girls set things right by returning the items to their original owners.

  Later that day, at story time, the teacher shared the picture book classic A Bargain for Frances. Though the conflict in the story is just over a broken tea set, the message about fair play was not lost on the children. The book was helpful in exploring a small, yet significant, life lesson. Stories are vital to the way we process and experience life events and the feelings that surround us. The ability to create, share, and respond to stories is one of the vital characteristics of being human. In fact, the human brain is programmed to see patterns and become fascinated in the plot development of stories, finally storing them in long-term memory. As a result, the brain is a remarkably effective processor of stories, both real and fictional.

  High-quality picture books are a good blend of art and literature that attracts kids' imagination and communicates an idea in an effective way. These books me perfect teaching tools, as they deal with the powerful emotions that kids feel, model effective coping strategies, and present complex concepts in appropriate ways. In addition, according to brain research, the picture book complements words with what leaves the most permanent impression: images. The pictures in books are distinctive from the fleeting images kids see on television in that they remain on the page, ready to be revisited, touched, and commented upon.

  Whether we share stories about families, historical events, or emotions, stories are a way to sum up life's memorable moments and lasting lessons. We can control the power of literature and use it to develop positive character in young kids by reading often, choosing suitable books, and enjoying stories together.

  1. Elia cried “That’s not fair!" as she thought that she was______

  A. cheated by her friend

  B. defeated by her friend

  C. ignored by her teacher

  D. scolded by her teacher

  2. A Bargain for Frances is intended to teach kids how to______

  A. Play fair in life

  B. organize things

  C. win in conflicts

  D. write a message

  3. According to the text, stories can help kids______

  A. realize their potential

  B. improve their memory

  C. concentrate on reading

  D. understand the human world

  4. In comparison with pictures in books, television images______

  A. are frequently commented on

  B. stay temporarily with children

  C. blend art and literature vividly

  D. communicate ideas effectively

  5. The power of literature can help kids develop their______

  A. positive character

  B. interest in history

  C. passion for stories

  D. learning strategies

  Exercise 4

  We have heard a lot about the health benefits of tea, especially green tea. It is high in poly-phenols, compounds with strong antioxidant activity that in test-tube and animal models show anti-cancer and heart-protective effects. Good clinical studies are few, however, and although physicians tell their patients to drink green tea, there hasn't been any definite proof of the value of that advice. A team of Japanese researchers was able to link green tea consumption with decreased mortality from many causes-including heart disease. The researchers tracked 40,530 healthy adults ages40 to

  79 in a region of northeastern Japan where most people drink green tea, following them for up to 11 years. Those who drank five or more cups of green tea a day had significantly lower mortality rates than those who drank less than one cup a day. There were also fewer deaths from cardiovascular disease.

  But no such association was seen with deaths from cancer. Nor was consumption of oolong or black tea connected with any decrease in mortality. Those teas are easier to be combined with oxy-gen in processing, which not only darkens the color of the leaves and changes their flavor but also reduces their polyphenol content.

  Coffee is more complicated. It has received both gold stars and black marks in medical literature. It, too, contains antioxidants, although they are less well studied than tea polyphenols. Evidence for the health benefits of coffee is growing, however. A group of investigators from Finland, Italy and the Netherlands reports that coffee seems to protect against age-related decline in mental capacity. The scientists studied 676 healthy men born from 1900 to 1920 and followed them for 10 years, using standardized measures of brain function. Their conclusion: the men who consumed coffee had significantly less decline in mental capacity than those who didn't. Three cups a day seemed to provide the most protection.

  Population studies like those help us form assumptions about relationships between dietary habits and long-term health. We still have to test our suppositions in controlled conditions, and measure the effects of coffee and tea on various systems of the body.

  1. Physicians often tell their patients to drink green tea because______

  A. its medical value has been proved

  B. it is believed to be good for one's health

  C. it has long since been used clinically

  D. its effectiveness has been shown in animals

  2. The Japanese study seems to have confirmed the positive effect of green tea on______

  A. young adults

  B. Asian people

  C. patients with cancer

  D. patients with heart disease

  3. The text indicates that black tea differs from green tea in that______

  A. it can retain the color of its leaves

  B. it can reduce cancer-related deaths

  C. it contains less polyphenol content

  D. it is stronger in flavor than the latter

  4. Coffee is beneficial to one’s health because______

  A.it has more antioxidants than green tea

  B. it slows down the rate of brain aging

  C. it lowers the rate of natural mortality

  D. it keeps systems of the body active

  5. The text indicates that the relationships between dietary habits and long-term health______

  A. are a falsely perceived supposition

  B. are a conflicting issue among people

  C. deserve further scientific research

  D. deserve to be tested on a larger population










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