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英语定语从句语法知识(精选)

2017-07-24 公共英语

  定语从句也称为关系从句或形容词性从句,由关系代(who, whom, whose, which, that, as )或关系副词(when, where, why)等引导。关系词除了起引导作用外,还在从句中指代前面的先行词,并在从句中担任一定的成分。下面是yjbys小编为大家带来的关于定语从句的语法知识,欢迎阅读。

  1、限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句

  定语从句就其与先行词的关系而言,可分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。限定性定语从句和先行词之间没有逗号,表示对先行词起修饰限制作用;而非限定性定语从句和先行词之间有逗号分开,是对先行词进行补充说明,相当于并列句。

  如:He is the man who has a strong personality. 他是个个性很强的人。(限定性定语从句)

  My brother, who works abroad, is coming next week. 我哥哥在国外工作,他下周将回来。(非限定性定语从句)

  注:

  1) 非限定性定语从句不能用that来引导,一般用which,as或who(指人)。用which或as引导时,既可以修饰主句的部分内容,也可修饰主句的全部内容。如:

  He spoke confidently, which impressed me most. (which指代整个主句,在从句中作主语)

  2) as引导的非限定性定语从句既可以放在主句之前,也可以放在主句之后,但which或who引导的非限定性定语从句不能放在主句之前。如:As we all know, the moon is a satellite of the earth.The large area is covered with thick snow, which affects people‘s life greatly.

  3) 在限定性定语从句中,关系代词作宾语时可以省略;但在 非限定性定语从句中,关系代词作宾语时不能省略。如:

  The film (which) I saw last night is about a young teacher. (which可以省去)

  She introduced me to her husband, whom I hadn’t met before. (whom不能省去)

  2、只用关系代词that,不用 which,who或whom的几种情况

  1)当先行词是all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much, none, few等时。如:All that you want are here.

  2) 当先行词被all, no, some, any, every, a few, a little, much, only, very等修饰时。如:There is no person that doesn’t make mistakes.

  3)当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。如:This is the best film that I have ever seen.

  4)当出现两个或两个以上的先行词,并同时兼指人和物时。如: We are talking about the people and countries that we have

  visited.

  5) 当主句是以which 或 who 开头的特殊疑问句时。如: Who is the person that is standing over there?

  6) 当定语从句为there be 句型时,关系代词只用that,

  但经常可以省略。如: I know the difference (that) there is between you.

  7)当关系代词在从句中作表语时,常用that。如:He does not seem to be the man that he was

  他似乎和过去不一样了。

  3、 as 与其他词连用引导的定语从句

  as 引导定语从句时,可指人也可指物,通常与the same,such,so等连用,形式为:the same… as,such… as,as …as,so… as。As在定语从句中可作主语、宾语、表语等。如:

  She knew he felt just the same as she did. 她知道他的感觉与她自己的一样。(as代替事,作宾语)

  I lend you such books as will interest you. 我借给你使你感兴趣的书。(as代替物,作主语)

  注:the same… as 和the same… that的用法不同。as引导的定语从句表示其内容与主句所讲的事物“相似”,指同类事物;that引导的定语从句表示其内容与主句所讲的事物是“同一个”,指同一事物。如:

  This is the same pen as I lost yesterday. 这和我昨天丢的笔一样。(类似的笔)

  This is the same pen that I lost yesterday. 这支笔就是我昨天丢的那支。(同一支笔)

  4、“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句

  在“介词+which/whom”结构中,介词的选择取决于3种情况:

  1)定语从句中谓语动词或表语的搭配。如: This is the college in which I am studying. He is the man about whom we are talking.

  2)先行词与介词的习惯搭配。如: The speed at which the machine operates is shown on the meter.

  仪表上显示出这台机器运转的速度。

  3)当定语从句为最高级时只能用of which; 否则用其他介词。如:  I have five dictionaries of which Longman Dictionary is the best.  I have five dictionaries among which Longman Dictionary is published in UK.

  注:不可拆分的动词短语介词不能提前,如put up with;有的短语可能有不同的介词搭配,此时需要根据上下文来确定。如:be familiar with/to,compare with/to等。

  有时为表意清楚,还可以在关系副词where/ when前加介词from, to等。如:

  China is the birthplace of kites, from

  where kite flying spreads to Japan, Korea, Thailand and India.

  中国是风筝的故乡,从这里,放风筝的运动传到了日本、韩国、泰国和印度。

  注 定语从句和同位语从句的区别

  定语从句在复合句中的功能相当于形容词,它对先行词起修饰、描述或限制作用。而同位语从句则属于名词性从句,对与它有同位关系得名词作进一步解释,使其内容具体化。例如:

  She felt very sad because of the news that her husband was killed in an aircraft crash. (同位语从句)

  The fact that she told me made me very angry. (定语从句)


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