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英语语法句子种类基础知识

2017-07-10 基础英语

  许多英语培训机构(英孚教育、洛基英语等)摒弃传统的的教学方法,使用先进的师资队伍和生动的课堂,重新唤起学员对英语基础语法的热情,给予他们学好英语的动力。下面是小编整理的关于英语语法句子种类基础知识,希望大家认真阅读!

英语语法句子种类基础知识

  1. 凡是说明一件事情,提出一个看法,或者表达一种心情的句子都是陈述句。大多数的句子都是陈述句,它可以用肯定式和否定式,句末用句号".",通常用降调。

  掌握陈述句的肯定式和否定式的构成及用法。

  e.g. We live in Tianjin. (肯定句)我们住在天津。

  We don't live in Shanghai. (否定句)我们不住在上海。

  注意:(1)在一般现在时的肯定式中,主语是第三人称单数时,动词要改成第三人称单数形式。

  e.g. John studies Chinese very well.

  (2)一般现在时和一般过去时的否定式要加助动词do (does), did.

  e.g. I don't like swimming. 我不喜欢游泳

  He doesn't have lunch at home every day. 他每天不在家吃午饭。

  They didn't play football yesterday. 他们昨天没有踢足球。

  2. 掌握一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句和反意疑问句的构成、用法和答语。注意在一般现在时和一般过去时的疑问句要加助动词do(does), did.

  e.g. Do you often speak English at school ? 在学校你常讲英语吗?

  Does she have a brother ? = Has she got a brother ? 她有兄弟吗?

  Did it take you two hours to do your homework last night ?

  昨天晚上做作业花了你2个小时吗?

  What do you often do on Sundays ?

  星期日你常常干什么?

  When does your father get up every morning ?

  你父亲每天早晨几点钟起床?

  Why didn't your teacher come to school yesterday ?

  昨天你们的老师为什么没来学校呢?

  提出两种或两种以上的情况,要求对方选择一种,这种疑问句叫选择疑问句。结构是:"一般疑问句+or+一般疑问句",但常把后一部分里面和前一部分相同的成分省略。说明or前面部分用升调,后面部分用降调。

  e.g. Is her brother an artist or a doctor ?

  她的兄弟是一个艺术家还是个医生?

  Would you like tea or coffee ?

  你愿意喝茶还是喝咖啡?

  Shall we go to the cinema on Saturday or on Sunday ?

  我们是周六还是周日去电影院?

  反意疑问句表示提问者有一定的主见,但没把握,希望对方来证实。

  注意反意疑问句的结构是:肯定的陈述句+否定的疑问句(缩略形式)

  或:否定的陈述句+肯定的疑问句(缩略形式)

  两部分的人称和时态要一致。

  特别要注意否定的疑问句中的助动词必须缩写,主语(最后一个词)必须是代词而不能是名词。

  e.g. Your sister has ever been to Shanghai , hasn't she ?

  你姐姐曾经去过上海是吗?

  The boys didn't find anything , did they ?

  男孩子们什么也没找到/发现,是不是?

  在回答反意疑问句时,要根据事实而定,事实是肯定的要回答Yes , …,事实是否定的要回答No, ….

  e.g. He isn't going to the meeting , is he ?

  他不去参加会,是吗?

  Yes , he is . 不,他要去。

  No , he isn't. 是的/对,他不去。

  It didn't snow last week , did it ?

  上周没有下雪,对吗?

  Yes , it did. / No , it didn't. 不,下雪了。是的,没下雪。

  3. 掌握祈使句的肯定式和否定式。祈使句没有主语。指让对方做某事,动词要用原形。表示请求,命令、建议等。

  e.g. Go back to your seat , please. 请回到你的座位上去。

  Don't make so much noise. 不要吵吵闹闹。

  Let's go to school together ! 咱们一起上学去吧!

  (let's是含有第一人称主语的祈使句)

  Let him help the child. 让他帮助那个孩子。(let him是含有第三人称主语的祈使句)

  注意:否定形式是Let's (us , me)+not +动词原形

  e.g. Let's not say anything about it.

  对于这件事,咱们什么也不要说了。

  4. 表示喜怒哀乐等强烈感情时用感叹句,理解由What和How引导的感叹句的语序和感叹句的使用方法。How和What与所修饰的词放在句首,其它部分用陈述句语序。在口语中谓语常省略。

  (1)how作状语,修饰形容词,副词或动词

  结构:How+形容词/副词+主语+谓语

  How nice the flowers are ! 花多漂亮啊!

  How hard he works ! 他工作的多努力啊!

  (2)what作宾语,修饰名词(名词前可有其他定语),单词可数名词前要加不定冠词a(an).

  结构:What a (an)+形容词+名词+主语+谓语

  e.g. What a clever girl (she is )!

  她是一个多么聪明的女孩啊!

  What delicious food ! 多么好吃的食物啊!

  句子的类型可分为简单句、并列句和复合句。

  简单句:The Simple Sentence由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)构成的句子。

  e.g. I get up at six thirty in the morning.

  My mother and I often go shopping.

  并列句:The Compound Sentence 由并列词and , so , but , or等)把两个或两个以上的'简单句连在一起而构成的句子。要掌握并列句的构成及用法。

  e.g. I help him and he helps me. 我帮他,他帮我。

  This is our first lesson , so I don't know all your names.

  这是我们的第一节课,所以我不认识你们。

  She likes bread and milk , but she doesn't like eggs at all.

  她喜欢吃面包和牛奶,但她一点儿也不喜欢吃鸡蛋。

  复合句:The Complex Sentence 由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子。

  e.g. If you are ill , you must see the doctor.

  如果你病了,一定要去看医生。(状语从句)

  I hope he's better tomorrow.

  我希望他明天身体更好一些。(宾语从句)

  熟练掌握宾语从句的语序及关联词that , if / whether , what , who , which , whose , when , what time , where , how 等的用法,以及宾语从句的时态。

  在复合句中作主句的宾语,叫宾语从句。

  注意:宾语从句的语序必须是陈述句语序。

  e.g. I asked him if he was a student.

  宾语从句的时态呼应是:主句的时态是一般现在时,从句可以是任何一个时态。

  如果主句的时态是一般过去时,从句必须是过去时态的一种形式。

  当表示事实、真理、自然现象时必须用一般现在时。

  e.g. The teacher told us that the earth goes around the sun.

  老师告诉我们地球围绕太阳转。

  请注意防止出现以下错误:

  A. They said that they'll leave if Peter stays.

  时态错误,应改为:They said that they would leave if Peter stayed.

  B. He asked why were you late for school.

  语序错误,应改为:He asked why you were late for school .

  C. Her brother asked me whose book this was ?

  标点错误,问号应该改为句号。

  熟练掌握由when , before , after , as soon as , until , because , than , if , so …that等词引导的时间、原因,比较,条件、结果状语从句。

  在复合句中修饰主句中的动词,形容词或副词等的从句叫作状语从句。

  时间状语从句:

  When she reached home , she had a short rest.

  当她到家时,她休息了一会儿。

  Judy had finished writing the book before she went to Queensland.

  朱娣在去昆士兰之前已经写完了那本书。

  I went to bed after I finished my article.

  我写完文章之后才上床。

  As soon as the bell rang the students, stopped talking to each other.

  铃声一响,学生们就停止了谈话。

  We won't leave until the headteacher comes back.

  班主任回来我们才会离开。

  原因状语从句:

  The children went to the farm , because the farmers needed some help.

  孩子们去农场是因为农民们需要帮忙。

  比较状语从句:Jim is older than Lucy is.

  吉姆比露西大。

  条件状语从句:

  If it rains tomorrow , we won't hold a sports meeting on the sportsground .

  如果明天下雨,我们就不在运动场上开运动会了。

  结果状语从句:

  The box is so heavy that I can't lift it.

  这个箱子太沉以致于我无法抬起来。

  目的状语从句:

  The headmaster spoke loudly so that all the students could hear what he said.

  校长高声讲话为的是全体学生能够听到他所讲的话。

  让步状语从句:

  Although he is young , he knows a lot of things.

  虽然他年龄小,但却认识许多事情。

  状语从句的时态要与主句时态相互呼应。但要注意以as soon as , when , until等引导的时间状语从句表示将来的动作时,从句要用一般现在时表示将来。

  e.g. He will write to me as soon as he gets to America.

  他一到美国就给我写信。

  When I see him , I will tell him this good news.

  当我见到他时,我将告诉他这个好消息。

  We won't leave until we finish our homework .

  直到完成作业我们才会离开。

  以if引导的条件状语从句假设的是将来的动作,主句用一般将来时,从句用一般现在时。

  e.g. He will come to see me if he has time. 如果条件状语从句放在宾语从句中,时态则依照宾语从句的要求而变。

  e.g. My mother said she would buy me a book if I studied hard.

  我母亲说如果我努力学习,她要给我买一本书。

  以because引导的原因状语从句不可能和so一起连用。

  e.g. He didn't come to school yesterday because he was ill.

  他昨天没来学校,因为他生病了。

  注意防止出现以下错误:

  A. I'm sure he'll ring you up if he will come back.

  从句时态错误,will come应该改为comes.

  B. Because he was tired , so he went to bed very early.

  中文习惯用"因为……所以……",但在英语中because不能和so同时使用,应该去掉其中的一个。

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