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高中英语基础知识及考点突破

2017-10-10 基础英语

  英语基础知识是英语学习中一个尤为重要的部分。下面是小编为大家带来的高中英语基础知识及考点突破,相信对你会有帮助的。

高中英语基础知识及考点突破

  高中英语基础知识及考点突破(一)

  1. hono(u)r vt.

  (1)尊敬

  e. g. Children should honour their father and mother. 孩子应该尊敬父母。

  (2)对……表示敬意

  e. g. Flowers were placed there to honour his memory.鲜花摆放在那里为了纪念他

  (3)使感到荣幸

  e. g. You honour us by being with us today.今天你和我们在一起这是我们的荣幸。

  I am honoured to be asked to speak here. 被邀请在此讲话是我的荣幸。

  honour n.

  (1)荣誉,光荣(不可数名词)

  e. g. They fight for the honour of their country. 他们为祖国的荣誉而战。

  (2)(高尚)人格,信誉(不可数名词)

  A man of honour would not behave in so cowardly way.

  一个高尚的人行为处事不会这么懦弱。

  (3)尊敬,敬重(不可数)

  e. g. One must show honour to one’s parents. 一个人必须尊敬父母。

  (4)使感到光荣的人或事,荣幸(可数,多作单数)

  e. g. It’s an honour to meet you. 见到你十分荣幸。

  比较:in honour of 为了(纪念或表示敬意而举行某活动)

  e. g. It is only a dance in honour of her birthday. 这只是纪念她生日的一个舞会。

  A memorial meeting was held in his honour. 为了纪念他而举行纪念会。

  have the honour (of)有幸……, 荣幸地

  e. g. May I have the honour of your company at dinner?我能有幸与您共进晚餐吗?

  2. determine vt.

  (1)决定

  e. g. His future has not been determined, but he may study medicine.

  他还没决定好未来,但他可能学医。

  Can we now determine the date for our party? 我们现在能决定派对的日期吗?

  (2)决心,决意,决定(作某事),(用过去分词)决心,下定决心

  determine+不定式to do

  e. g. She determined to go that very afternoon. 她决心就在那个下午走。

  determine+从句

  He had been determined that no one should know.他决意不让任何人知道。

  determined 过去分词作定语或表语,果断,坚定,坚决

  e. g.His voice was determined, and his eyes were flashing.

  他的声音很坚决,他的眼睛闪闪发亮。

  determination n.

  (1)决心(不可数)

  e. g. He came with the determination of staying/to stay one week.他决心呆一周。

  (2)决定(不可数,间或加不定冠词)

  e. g. The boy came to a determination to run away from school. 男孩决定逃学。

  self-determination n. 自主,自我决定

  3. purpose n. 目的,意图,目标

  e. g. What is your purpose in doing this? 你做这件事的目的是什么?

  比较:for…purpose为了……目的on purpose 有意地,故意地,特意

  e. g. If I go there in future, it will be for the purpose of seeing you.

  如果我今后去那儿的话,就是为了见你。

  I’ve come on purpose to speak to you. 我来是特意要与你谈谈。

  She did it on purpose. 她是故意那样做。

  4. reminder n. 提醒的人(物),暗示

  e. g. Please give me a reminder this afternoon to phone him.请下午提醒我给他打电话。

  remind v. 使……想起,提醒

  (1)+ of短语 e. g. That story you have just told reminds me of an experience I once had.

  你刚刚讲的故事使我想起了我曾经有过的经历。

  (2)+ sb. to do e. g. Please remind me to write that letter. 请提醒我写信。

  (3)+从句 e. g. The sight of the clock reminded me that I was late.

  看见时钟使我想起我迟到了。

  5.compare v.

  (1)compare … with…比较,指同类事物的具体比较

  e. g. Compare these two languages, and we can see there are differences as well as similarities.

  比较这两种语言,可以发现它们有同有异。

  Parents like to compare their own children with other children.

  父母们总喜欢把自己的孩子与别的孩子进行比较。

  (2) compare … to … 比作, 指非同类事物的抽象比较

  e. g. Shakespeare compared the world to a stage. 莎士比亚把人世比作舞台。

  People often compare girls to flowers. 人们经常把女孩子比作花朵。

  (3) compared to/ with…与……比起来,常在句中作状语,可位于句首或句尾,to和with可通用。

  It was a small place then compared to/ with what it is now.

  和现在比起来,那时它还是个小地方。

  6. 表示穿着的动词

  (1)put on 表示穿上的动作

  e. g. He put on his coat and went out hurriedly.他穿上外衣匆匆忙忙地出去了。

  (2) wear表示穿着状态,意义最广,可用于衣服、鞋、帽、袜、手套、眼镜、手表、徽章、首饰,还可表示头发、胡须的式样,带有某种表情或样子。

  e. g. He was a short man wearing thick glasses.他是一个带着厚厚的眼镜的矮小的人。

  (3) dress既可表示动作也可表示状态,作及物动词时,后面宾语是人,即dress sb. / oneself (in sth. )或be dressed in sth.

  e. g. She dressed the baby in red. 她给孩子穿上了红色的衣服。

  (4) have on表示穿着状态,无进行时。

  e. g. She had a red dress on. 她穿了一件红裙子。

  (5)be in sth. 表示状态

  e. g. He’s in plain clothes. 他身着便装。

  What colour is your child in? 你的孩子穿着什么颜色的衣服?

  7. light的用法

  (1)adj. 明亮的(=bright),浅色的(=pale)

  e. g. His room is light and airy. 他的房间又亮又通风。

  It gets light at about six o’clock. 六点左右天亮。

  She has a light green dress. 她有一条淡绿色的裙子。

  (2)n.①光线,亮光(不可数),但如表示一种光线时,尤其是被形容词修饰时,前可加不定冠词。e. g. The test-tube was glowing with a faint blue light.试管里发出微弱的蓝光。

  ②灯,灯光,发光物,引火物(可数)

  e. g. There were no lights on in any office room. 没有一个办公室里有灯光。

  (3) v. (light, lit, lit)和(light, lighted, lighted)

  ①点燃(生炉子)e. g. When it was dark we lit the candles. 天黑时我们点上了蜡烛。

  ②照亮e. g. Our streets are lit by electricity. 街道被灯光照亮。

  ③(使)变得亮起来,开朗起来

  e. g. Her face lighted when she saw who it was.当她看清是谁时,她的脸亮了起来。

  Suddenly a smile lit (up) her face. 突然微笑使她的脸亮了起来。

  (4)light up动词短语

  ①照亮,点亮e. g. The burning building lit up the whole street.燃烧的建筑物照亮了整条街道。

  ②(使)容光焕发,春风满面 (指人的面部表情)

  e. g. Her face lit up when she heard the good news.当她听到好消息时,脸上露出喜色。

  注意:light的过去分词有两种: lighted, lit当作定语修饰名词时,用lighted。

  e. g. a lighted candle 一支点着的蜡烛。

  8 .common用法及common, usual, ordinary, general区别

  (1)common

  ①共同的,共有的e. g. English is their common language. 英语是他们的共同语言。

  ②普通的,一般的,平常的 Nothing is commoner than that. 没有比此更普通的。

  ③常见的,到处可见的e. g. Is this word in common use? 这个字常用吗?

  ④ in common (with sb. )共同的e. g. We have many things in common. 我们有许多共同之处。

  (2) common, general, ordinary, usual区别

  common侧重“普通”,表示“时时发生,人所共有”,并含有“并不高贵,地位低下”之意,指符合或具有全体共有的特征,其反义词为rare。

  e. g. a common saying 俗语 a common wish 一个共同的愿望

  common sense 常识common knowledge 普通知

  This is a grammatical mistake common among beginners in English.

  这是个初学英语的人易犯的错误。

  general 侧重“普遍”,表示在大多数人或事物中流行并受到关注,不含有“地位低下”之意,其反义词为specific。e. g. general readers 一般读者a general idea 一个普通的观点

  ordinary与common基本同义,侧重“外表平凡的,普通的”,表示“随时可以碰到,不值得惊奇”,其反义词为superior。

  e. g. an ordinary event一件极平常的事an ordinary person一个普通的人

  My teacher is an ordinary-looking man.我的老师是个相貌平常的人。

  usual用来指事物,强调习惯性,一贯如此,意为“通常的,惯常的”, 含有“随集体风俗或个人习惯而常常发生”之意,其反义词为unusual。

  e. g. as usual和往常一样 It’s a usual thing with him. 这对他来说是平常事。

  9. believe与believe in

  believe相信 = think …true, 后接表示人或事物的.名词或代词,也可接what/ that从句

  e. g. I believe you. = I believe what you said. 我相信你说的话。

  I could hardly believe my ears/eyes.我简直不敢相信我所听到的/看到的。

  高中英语基础知识及考点突破(二)

  1. give短语总结

  (1)give away

  ①分发,送给人e. g. He gave away all his pictures. 他把所有的画都送人了。

  ②泄漏(机密),暴露(自己的情况) Please don’t give my secret away. 请不要泄漏我的秘密。

  (2)give back

  ①还给e. g. I must call at the library to give back this book. 我必须去图书馆还书。

  ②恢复(健康等)e. g. Living here has given me back my health. 住在这里我的健康恢复了。

  (3)give in

  ①交上来e. g. Give in your exercise books. 请交上练习本。

  ② give in (to sb. )让步,妥协,投降,认输,向……让步

  e. g. The enemy is surrounded and must soon give in. 敌人被包围了必须马上投降。

  He is always giving in to other people. 他总是向别人让步。

  (4) give off 散发出e. g. The flowers give off a sweet fragrance. 花散发出甜美的香气。

  (5)give out

  ①散发,颁发e. g. The teacher gave out the examination papers. 老师分发试卷。

  ②宣布e. g. He gave out that he was going to England. 他宣布他将去英国。

  ③被用完,耗尽,没有了

  e. g. You can’t have a hot bath—the water will give out.你不能洗热水澡,水快没了。

  ④(机器等)失灵,(人)体力不支. The chair gave out under the fat man. 人太胖了,椅子垮了。

  ⑤发出e. g. The radio is giving out a strange signal. 无线电发出奇怪的信号。

  (6)give up放弃,不再做(某事)He has given up playing football. 他不再踢球了。

  2 as well as

  (1)意为“除……外”“同”“和”“并”“也”,后接动词时用动名词。

  e. g. He gave me money as well as advice. 他不但给我建议还给我钱。

  Alice has an English-Chinese dictionary as well as a Chinese-English dictionary.

  爱丽丝不但有一本汉英词典还有一本英汉词典。

  The little girl is clever as well as beautiful. 这个女孩不但漂亮,而且聪明。

  (2) A as well as B部分作主语时,谓语动词的单复数与A一致

  e. g. The teacher as well as his students was praised.不仅学生而且老师也受到了表扬。

  高中英语基础知识及考点突破(三)

  1)与as well as 用法相同的还有 (along/ together) with, including, but/except/ besides, in addition to, rather than, like/ such as …

  e. g. It is you rather than I who are to speak at the meeting.是你而不是我将在会上讲话。

  Besides him, three more men have been invited.除了他,还有三个人被邀请了。

  2)有一些短语作主语时,谓语动词的单复数由与它靠近的词来决定,这些短语有:or, either…or…, neither…nor…, not only…but also…, not…but…, There be…

  e. g. He or I am to go to the meeting. 他或者我去开会。

  Either you or she is wrong. 不是你就是她错了。

  (3) as well as 相当于 not only… but also…, 但表示“不但……而且”时,A as well as B侧重A, 而not only A but also B侧重B

  e. g. You as well as I are wrong. = Not only I but also you are wrong.

  (4) as well as后接从句,是副词的同级比较。

  e. g. She sings as well as she plays. 她弹得好,唱得也好。

  He shoots as well as he rides. 他马骑得好,枪打得也好。

  (5) as well用在句末时,与also/too相近,as well与too常用于句末。

  e. g. She is not only good at maths, she is good as English as well.她不但数学好,英语也好。

  Mary’s sister teaches English, too. 玛丽的姐姐也教英语。

  too除了放在句末外,也可接在主语之后,这时比较正式。

  e. g. I, too, know how to work out the maths problem.我也知道怎样解这道数学题。

  also不如too/ as well用得多,不用于句末,通常与动词连用。

  e. g. I’ve also read some of Shakespeare’s plays.我也读过一些莎士比亚的剧本。

  also, as well, too一般不用于否定句,否定句中可用not…either, neither…nor…

  I like the novel as well. 我也喜欢这部小说I don’t like the novel either.我也不喜欢这部小说。

  She is here, too. 她也在这里。 She isn’t here, either. 她也不在这里。

  3. care about

  (1) 关心

  e. g. He used to care only about his own family, but has greatly changed now.

  他曾经只关心他自己家,但是现在变了很多。

  (2)喜欢,对……有兴趣e. g. He cares about music. 他对音乐感兴趣。

  比较:care for

  (1) 照顾,照料The mother cared for the sick child night and day.

  妈妈日日夜夜照料生病的孩子。

  (2)喜欢,对……有兴趣e. g. They do not care very greatly for art. 他们对艺术不是很感兴趣。

  care v. 在乎,在意(多用于否定结构)

  (1) +从句e. g. I’ll go. I don’t care what happens. 我要走,我不在乎发生什么了。

  (2)后不接内容I don’t care, so long as she let me be with her.我不在乎,只要她让我和她在一起。

  (1)注意,当心(不可数)

  take care+从句e. g. Take care (that) you don’t break it. 小心别打碎它。

  take care of sth. e. g. Take care of what you are doing. 注意你在干什么。

  with care 作状语,仔细地,认真地,当心 e. g. Cross the road with care. 过马路时要当心。

  (2)照顾,照管(不可数)

  under (one’s/ the) care e. g. I must leave him under your care. 我必须让你来照顾他。

  in one’s care e. g. Mary was left in her sister’s care. 玛丽被留下来由姐姐照顾。

  to one’s care e. g. I’ll leave this to your care. 我将把这个留给你来照顾。

  take care of e. g. It was I who was taking care of him. 是我在照顾他。

  (3)忧烦,烦恼(不可数) e. g. Care had made him look ten years older. 烦恼使他看起来老十岁。

  (4)烦人的事(可数) e. g. He seemed to be a little man without a care.他似乎是一个没有烦事的小人物。

  高中英语基础知识及考点突破(四)

  1. The Spring Festival, …and festivals help us understand who we are, remember where we come from, and share our hopes for a happy future.

  春节,……和节日帮助我们了解我们是谁,记住我们从哪里来,并共同分享对美好未来的期望。

  share v.

  (1)共同具有,合用e. g. Three doctors share the office. 三个医生共用这个办公室。

  (2)分享,分担e. g. They would share the joys and sorrows. 他们将同甘苦,共患难。

  (3)share in分享,分担,共同努力

  e. g. We all shared in his happiness when he won the scholarship.

  当她获得奖学金时,我们都替他高兴。

  (4) share with与……合用

  e. g. Would you mind sharing a bedroom with another guest?

  你介意和另一位客人共用一个房间吗?

  比较: spare

  (1)留出(时间作某事),挤出(时间)

  e. g. Can you spare the time to help me? 你能挤出时间帮助我吗?

  (2)不用,匀出(给别人用)

  e. g. Father couldn’t spare the car, so John had to walk.爸爸要用车,因此约翰只得步行。

  (3)放过,饶(命),不杀

  e. g. The king spared the lives of the women and children.国王放过了妇女和儿童。

  save v.

  (1)挽救,拯救e. g. They fought bravely and saved the country. 他们勇敢战斗拯救祖国。

  (2)节省,省去,省着用,保护

  e. g. If we buy plenty of food now, it will save shopping again this week.

  如果我们现在买了足够的食物,这周就省了再上街购物了。

  Save your eyes by reading in good light.在光线足的地方读书可保护你的眼睛。

  (3)节约,存钱,省钱,储蓄

  e. g. He’s saving to buy a bicycle. 他省钱来买自行车。

  (4)留下,保留,保住,留作他用

  Save your strength for the hardwork, you’ll have to do later.

  留着点儿劲,你一会儿还得干活儿呢。

  (5)save …for…留供……用

  e. g. He is saving himself / his strength for the heavy work.他节省力量来干重活。

  2. There seems to be no other choice. 似乎别无选择。

  seem v.

  (1)似乎,好像

  ① +不定式:

  seem to do表示一般状况。

  e. g. I don’t seem to lack anything. 我好像不缺什么。

  seem to have done表示该动作是在谓语动词发生之前就已经完成。

  I seem to have caught a cold. 我好像感冒了。

  He seemed not to have grasped what she really meant.他好像没有把握她的意思。

  seem to be doing表示在过去的某段时间里正在进行的动作,强调该动作在过去持续了一段时间。e. g. She seemed to be sleeping. 她好像在睡觉。

  seem (to be)+表语(adj. 或n. 或prep. )

  e. g. You seem to be in a great hurry. 你似乎很着急。

  ② It seems(ed) (that)从句可以和“主语+seems/seemed+动词不定式”互相转换,意思不变。注意句型转换:

  e. g. It seemed that he had failed the exam.= He seemed to have failed in the exam.

  他似乎没通过考试。

  It seems that nobody knew what had happened. 看来没人知道发生了什么事。

  It seems(ed) as if从句

  e. g. It seems as if there will be an election soon. 好像很快就要选举了。

  ③ There seems(ed) (to be)好像有,似乎有

  e. g. There seems to be something/the matter with her. 她好像有什么事。

  (2)看来,似乎是(什么样子) link v. (系动词)

  ① +形容词e. g. He seemed to me quite normal. 对于我来说,他很正常。

  ② +分词e. g. She always seemed well pleased. 她好像总是很高兴。

  ③ +名词e. g. It seems not a bad idea. 那个主意好像不错。

  ④ +介词短语 e. g. You seem in high spirits. 你好像情绪很高涨。

  3. …or, in other words, the first day of spring. 或者,换句话说,春天的第一天。

  (1)in other words换句话说

  e. g. In other words, we can complete the project on time only in this way.

  换句话说,只有这样我们才能按时完成工程。

  In other words, if you break the rule, you will be punished.

  换言之,如果你违反了规则,你将受到惩罚。

  (2)in a word 总之,简言之

  e. g. In a word, I don’t trust him. 总之,我不信任他。

  (3)in words 用言语

  e. g. Though the boy is only two, he can express his meaning clearly in words.

  尽管这男孩只有两岁,他能清楚地用语言来表达他的意思。

  4. It is not a sad day, but rather a time to celebrate the cycle of life. 这不是悲伤的一天,而是庆祝生命轮回的时刻。

  rather 副词

  (1)“相当,颇,甚”

  e. g. We all were rather tired after our long walk. 走了那么远,我们都相当累了。

  I rather expected that we would win. 我很希望我们能赢。

  (2)比较 fairly, rather, quite, pretty

  ①表示程度

  fairly与rather表示“相当地”时,fairly含有积极肯定的意思,rather含有消极否定的意思。

  e. g. The question is fairly difficult. 这个问题很难——但适当。

  The question is rather difficult. 这个问题很难——有点过难,不适当。

  fairly是程度最轻的,例如:某人的英语说得fairly well, 言外之意是他只能应付一些日常用语。说某本书fairly good,是说这本书还可以看一看,但没有赞扬之意。

  e. g. He’s just written a new book. It’s fairly interesting, but certainly not his best.

  他刚出了一本新书,这本书还算有意思,但肯定不是他的最佳作品。

  He studies fairly hard. 他学习还算用功。

  quite比fairly程度强一点,如果你认为某本书quite good, 就是在推荐给别人看,虽算不上最佳小说,但还是值得一看。

  e. g. They study English quite hard. 他们学习英语还保留用功。

  He was quite polite, but he wasn’t ready to help me.他相当有礼貌,但他并不愿意帮助我。

  rather程度上比quite又强,相当于more than expected/more than you want。如说某人的外语rather well, 那此人肯定是个内行,就电影而言,rather good是说胜过多数影片。

  e. g. She speaks English rather well. 她的英语讲得真不错。

  pretty表示程度时,和rather差不多,多用于非正式文体。

  e. g. Twenty-five is pretty old to take up ballet dancing.二十五岁才学芭蕾舞年龄太大了。

  The situation seems pretty hopeless. 情形似乎没有太大希望了。

  ②用法

  rather和quite可置于不定冠词前或后

  e. g. That is quite / rather a surprising result. 那是一个相当惊人的结果。= That is a rather / quite surprising result.

  rather可与比较级和too +形容词/副词连用,quite只能与better连用。

  e. g. This book is rather too difficult for the juniors.这本书对低年级的学生来说太难了。

  Today I feel quite better. 今天我感到好多了。

  This room is rather larger than we want.这个房间比我们需要的大了不少。

  quite同没有程度差别的形容词连用时,一般作“完全地”“绝对地”。

  e. g. She was quite alone. 她非常孤单。It’ s quite impossible. 这绝不可能。

  4. Whatever the trick is, if a person is taken in, he or she is called “April Fool”! 不管是什么把戏,如果一个人上当了,他或她就被称作“四月傻子”。

  (1) whatever

  ①= no matter what 无论是什么,不管什么,在句中作状语。

  e. g. Whatever happens, we will not change our plan.无论发生什么事,我们都不会改变计划。

  No matter what you want to do, above all, you should obey the law.

  不管你想干什么,首先,你必须守法。

  ② = anything that任何事/东西,在句中起名词作用,引导名词性从句。

  e. g. You can take whatever you like.= You can take anything that you like.

  你可以拿走你喜欢的任何东西。

  (2)take in

  ①欺骗,哄骗,使上当

  e. g. We were completely taken in by his story. 我们完全被他的故事骗了。

  ②理解,领会,明白

  e. g. The lesson was too difficult for the class to take in.课太难了,学生难以领会。

  ③接受(房客,客人等),让……在家居住(食宿),收留

  e. g. The farmer took in the lost travelers for the night.农夫让迷路的旅行者在家过夜。

  ④包括,涉及e. g. The study of physics takes in many different subjects.物理学涉及许多学科。

  (3)take up

  ①开始学习,开始做(某项工作)

  e. g. What is your son taking up in college? 你儿子在大学学习什么?

  ②从事某项活动,发展某种爱好

  e. g. At the age of sixty he took up the study of Russian.六十岁时他开始学俄语

  ③占用,占掉(时间,空间)e. g. The meeting took up the whole morning. 会议占了整个上午。

  ④接受e. g. Do you intend to take up his offer of a job? 你想接受他提供的工作吗?

  ⑤吸起(墨水,灰尘等)e. g. Plants take up water. 植物吸水。

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