2020-11-03 四级


  Part C

  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 51 —— 55, choose the most suitable one from the list [A] —— [ G ] to fit into each of the numbered gaps. There are two extra choices, which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET.

  On the north bank of the Ohio River sits Evansville, Ind., home of David Williams,52, and of a riverboat casino ( a place where gambling games are played). During several years of gambling in that casino, Williams, a state auditor eaming$ 35,000 a year, lost approximately $175,000. He had never gambled before the casino sent him a coupon for $ 20 worth of gambling.

  He visited the casino, lost the $ 20 and left. On his second visit he lost $ 800. The casino issued to him, as a good customer, a "Fun Card", which when used in the casino earns points for meals and drinks, and enables the casino to track the user' s gambling activities. For Williams,those activities become what he calls "electronic heroin. "

  (51) In 1997 he lost $21,000 to one slot machine in two days. In March

  1997 he lost $ 72,186. He sometimes played two slot machines at a" time, all night, until the boat docked at 5 a. m., then went back aboard when the casino opened at 9 a. m. Now he is suing the casino, charging that it should have refused his patronage because it knew he was addicted. It did know he had a problem.

  In March 1998, a friend of Williams' s got him involuntarily confined to a treatment center for addictions, and wrote to inform the casino of Williams' s gambling problem. The casino included a photo of Williams among those of banned gamblers, and wrote to him a "cease admissions" letter.

  Noting the "medical/psychological" nature of problem gambling behavior, the letter said that before being readmitted to the casino he would have to present medical/psychological information demonstrating that patronizing the casino would pose no threat to his safety or well-being.

  (52) .

  The Wall Street Journal reports that the casino has 24 signs warning : "'Enjoy the fun...and always bet with your head, not over it". Every entrance ticket lists a toll-free number for counseling from the Indiana Department of Mental Health. Nevertheless, Williams' s suit charges that the casino, knowing he was "helplessly addicted to gambling", intentionally worked to "lure" him to"engage in conduct against his will. " Well.

  (53) .

  The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders says "pathological gambling" involves persistent, recurring and uncontrollable pursuit less of money than of the thrill of taking risks in quest of a windfall.

  (54) . Pushed by science, or what claims to be science, society is reclassifying what once were considered character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities.

  (55) .

  Forty-four states have lotteries,29 have casinos, and most of these states are to varying degrees dependent on--you might say addicted to revenues from wagering. And since the first Internet gambling site was created in 1995, competition for gamblers' dollars has become intense. The Oct.28 issue of Newsweek reported that 2 million gamblers patronize 1,800 virtual casinos every week. With $ 3.5 billion being lost on Internetwagers this year, gambling has passed pornography as the Web' s most profitable business.

  A. Although no such evidence was presented, the casino' s marketing department continued to pepper him with mailings. And he entered the casino and used his Fun Card without being detected.

  B. It is unclear what luring was required, given his compulsive behavior. And in what sense was his will operative?

  C. By the time he had lost $ 5,000 he said to himseff that if he could get back to even, he would quit. One night he won $ 5,500, but he did not quit.

  D. Gambling has been a common feature of American life forever, but for a long time it was broadly considered a sin, or a social disease. Now it is a social policy: the most important and aggressive promoter of gambling in America is the government.

  E. David Williams' s suit should trouble this gambling nation, But don' t bet on it.

  F. It is worrisome that society is medicalizing more and more behavioral problems, often defining as addictions what earlier, sterner generations explained as weakness of will.

  G. The anonymous, lonely, undistracted nature of online gambling is especially conductive to compulsive behavior. But even if the government knew how to move against Intemet gambling, what would be its grounds for doing so?

  Part C














  51.C 【解析】本题是顺接关系题。该空格位于第三段的开头,因此要结合上下文,注意其叙述或衔接关系。空格前后都是在讲述威廉姆斯赌钱的具体事例,且出现了大量的数字,由前文的$20和$800再到空格后的$21,000和$72,185,数字越来越大,这表明他越赌输掉的钱就越多。由此可推断,空白处也应与他的输赢或输赢的数目有关。浏览各选项,只有C出现了数字$5,000 和$5,500,与前后文的数字形成照应。另外,从逻辑关系上看,空格前一句提到,威廉姆斯称这些赌钱活动为“电子白面”,接下来的内容该是具体说明他是如何逐步赌钱成瘾的,这由输钱金额的渐增体现出来。C选项的事实数据与上下文在逻辑表达方向上一致。

  52.A 【解析】本题是转折关系题。该空格出现在第五段,要求填入一个完整的段落。空格前的内容谈到在朋友写信告知那家赌场有关威廉姆斯赌钱上瘾的问题后,赌场似乎已经尽到了它的义务:将其列入了禁止进入赌场的名单,并提到他若再次进入此赌场需出示相关医学和心理学信息,以证明光顾赌场不会对他的安全和健康造成任何威胁。但实际上从下一段内容得知,赌场在明知他上瘾的情况下并未采取行动。选项A段落即由“al-though”引起转折,提到尽管威廉姆斯没有提供相关证据,但还是频频收到赌场市场部的邮件,而且进入赌场使用开心卡也无人察觉,继续说明了赌场的行为:表面上禁止,却仍在暗中鼓励他赌钱。如此一来,与之前内容构成了转折关系。另外,该选项中的.“Although no such evidence was presented”和上文中的“he would have to present medical/psychological information”语义上衔接紧密,“such evidence”与“medical/psychological informa-tion”形成合理的指代关系,构成篇章的一致性。

  53.B 【解析】本题是顺接关系题。该空格出现在第七段,也要求填入一个完整的段落。空格前面谈到威廉姆斯对赌场的控诉,明明知道赌徒已经“不可救药地沉溺于赌钱”仍然故意“引诱”(1ure)他“做出违背自己意愿(will)的行为”。空格后引出一个新话题介绍“病态赌钱行为”的一个定义。按照逻辑关系,空格处的内容应与上一段或下一段相关。浏览各选项,可以发现,选项B中“…what luring was required…was his will operative”再次出现了关键词“lure”和“will”,对前面的内容进一步作了补充和说明,且提出问题让下一段回答,正好起到了承上启下的作用。F项 虽然也再次出现了前一句的“will”,但“用医学的方法来处理行 为问题”与前一段语义上不衔接,故排除。G项提到了“compul-sive behavior”,但其中的新话题“在线赌钱”也与上文不衔接。

  54.F 【解析】本题是顺接关系题。该空格属于第九段的段首句。空格前面提到了“病态赌钱行为”的一个定义。空格后则指出“socie-ty is reclassifying what once were considered character flaws or moral failings as personality disorders akin to physical disabilities.”社会对性格缺陷或道德沦丧的新看法。即上下文都从理论上谈及赌钱,与赌场或赌徒的具体行为不相关,所以可以排除A、C、E三项。根据上下文的衔接关系又可将D、G两项排除,因为其中 都引入了新信息:政府与网上赌钱。8项的“compulsive behav-ior”虽与前面的“uncontrollable”相呼应,却与下文没有任何关 联。而F项内容上也谈到了社会对意志力薄弱这一行为的新看 法,与前后文都具有意义和逻辑上的一致性。此外,该选项的 “defining as…”与空格后的“reclassifying…as…”结构类似,且 “medicalize”与上文的“diagnostic,mental disorders,,pathologi-cal”和空格后的“physical”都是属于医学范畴的词;“weakness of will”与空格后的“character flaws”这一信息相关。

  55.D 【解析】本题是顺接关系题。此空格出现在第十段,要求填入一个完整的段落。空格前面主要介绍了社会现在对“病态赌钱行为”的定义。空格后面则具体描述了赌钱在美国的发展情况以及导致这一现象的原因。根据逻辑关系分析,空格处的内容可 能会起到承上启下的作用。分析各选项,可发现,D选项的第一 句内容“…a common feature of American life…a sin,or a social disease”正好承接上文,和下文的具体例子之间也构成了总结例证的逻辑关系,其中“a sin,or a social disease”与前一句的“char-acter flaws or moral failings”相照应;第二句则引出了下一段所描述的赌钱业蓬勃发展的现象,且“government”与下一段首句的“states”照应。










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