托福考试阅读中句子解读的障碍

2020-08-15 试题

  以下是小编yjbys为您推荐的一些关于托福考试阅读中句子解读的障碍,欢迎学习参考,同时祝所有考生获得理想的好成绩!

  1) 定语

  前置定语: adj+n

  后置定语:

  n+ adj phrase形容词短语: a book useful for you

  prep phrase介词短语: a pen on the desk

  v-ing/-ed phrase分词短语: a person walking on the road; a tool developed for the project

  不定式: a way to solve the problem

  注:

  ²分词短语作后置定语时,其逻辑主语是其修饰的.名词

  ²不定代词只能用后置定语修饰

  ²不定式作后置定语其逻辑主语是第三方: sb use the way to solve the problem

  定语从句:

  ²关系代词引导定语从句: that, which, who, whom, whose( 其中that, which, who, whom引导的是非完整句, whose 引导的是完整句)

  ²关系连词: when, where, why在句子中不作成分, 引导的是完整句

  ²介词+关系代词: in which, 此关系代词不包括what

  2) 同位语: 同插入语一样处理----删除

  A, B( 定语从句/同位语从句)

  A, or B

  A that + 句子( 完整句)

  A of B: the city of Beijing

  3) 状语: 处理方式----隔离

  Adv 副词

  Prep phrase 介词短语

  分词短语

  不定式

  注: 非谓语动词作状语其逻辑主语是句子的主语

  4) 并列结构

  并列连词的用法: 并列连词连接结构\功能\性质均相同的成分----必须完全对等

  5) that引导的各种从句

  S+V+THAT+句子(完整句)----宾语从句

  S+系动词+表语+句子----表语从句

  It + Vi + that +句子

  It + be + adj +that +句子 完整句

  That +句子+ V

  N+ that +句子+ 同位语(完整句)

  定语从句(非完整句)

  S + Vi + that+ 句子: The sun rises that is bright.

  S + be + adj + that + 句子: The desk is clean that is used by the student(定语从句); The fact is true that Tom is handsome(同位语从句).

  (2) 复杂句的阅读方法----层次化句子阅读法

  1) 括号匹配

  …… 关联词 (完整句)

  …… (关联词+ 非完整句)

  2) 划右括号的条件:

  句子终结

  连接句子的并列连词或标点符号之前

  例1: However, for many years physicists thought that (atom and molecules always were much more likely to emit light spontaneously) and that (stimulated emission thus always would be much weaker)

  例2: It appeared that 〔Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families (that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution)〕.

  例3: The history of clinical nutrition, or the study of the relationship between health and how the body takes in and utilizes food substances(同位语,删除), can be divided into four distinct eras: the first began in the nineteenth century and extended into the early twentieth century (when it was recognized for the first time that (food contained constituents (that were essential for human function) )and that (different foods provided different amounts of these essential agents).

  例4: Using techniques first developed for the offshore oil and gas industry, the DSDP’s drill ship, the Glomar Challenger(同位语,删除), was able to maintain a steady position on the ocean’s surface and drill in very deep water, extracting samples of sediments and rock from the ocean floor.

  例5: The desperate plight of the South has eclipsed the fact that (reconstruction had to be undertaken also in North, though less spectacularly).

  例6: The technique of direct carving was a break with the nineteenth century in which (the making of a clay model was considered the creative act) and (the work was then turned over to studio assistant to be cast in plaster or bronze or carved in marble).

  例7: Anyone (who has handle a fossilized bone) knows that (it is usually not exactly like its modern counterpart), the most obvious difference being that( it is often much heavier) 独立主格结构.

  例8: The impressive gain in output 〔stemmed primarily from the way in which (workers made goods since 1790’s)〕, North American enterpreneurs----even without the technological improvement----had broadended the scope of the outwork system (that made manufacturing more efficient by distributing materials to succession of workers (who each performed a single step of the production process))

  例9: The fact that (artisanss, (who were locked on as mechanics or skilled workers in the eighteenth century), (are frequently considered artists today) is directly attributable to the Arts and Crafts Movement of the nineteenth century)

  例10: A few art collectors James Bowdoin III of Boston, William Bbyrd of Virginian, and the Aliens abd Hamiltons of Philadelphia (同位语)introduced European art traditions to those colonists〔privileged to visit their galleries, especially aspiring artists〕 and established in their respective communities the idea of the value of art and the need for institutions 〔devoted to its encouragement〕.

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