Baekeland and Hartmann report that the “short sleepers” had been more or less average in their sleep needs until the men were in their teens. But at about age 15 or so, the men voluntarily began cutting down their nightly sleep time because of pressures from school, work, and other activities. These men tended to view their nightly periods of unconsciousness as bothersome interruptions in their daily routines.
In general, these “short sleeps” appeared ambitious, active, energetic, cheerful, conformist(不动摇) in their opinions, and very sure about their career choices. They often held several jobs at once, or workers full-or part-time while going to school. And many of them had a strong urge to appear “normal” or “acceptable” to their friends and associates.
When asked to recall their dreams, the “short sleepers” did poorly. More than this, they seemed to prefer not remembering. In similar fashion, their usual way of dealing with psychological problems was to deny that the problem existed, and then to keep busy in the hope that the trouble would go away.
The sleep patterns of the “short sleepers” were similar to, but less extreme than, sleep patterns shown by many mental patients categorized as manic(疯人). The “long sleepers” were quite different indeed. Baekeland and Hartmann report that these young men had been lengthy sleeps since childhood. They seemed to enjoy their sleep, protected it, and were quite concerned when they were occasionally deprived of their desired 9 hours of nightly bed rest. They tended to recall their dreams much better than did the “short sleepers.”
Many of the “long sleepers” were shy, anxious, introverted (内向), inhibited (压抑), passive, mildly depressed, and unsure of themselves (particularly in social situations). Several openly states that sleep was an escape from their daily problems.
1. According to the report,______.
A) many short sleepers need less sleep by nature
B) many short sleepers are obliged to reduce their nightly sleep time because they are busy with their work
C) long sleepers sleep a longer period of time during the day
D) many long sleepers preserve their sleeping habit formed during their childhood
2. Many “short sleepers” are likely to hold the view that _____.
A) sleep is a withdrawal from the reality
B) sleep interferes with their sound judgement
C) sleep is the least expensive item on their routine program
D) sleep is the best way to deal with psychological troubles
3. It is stated in the third paragraph that short sleepers _____.
A) are ideally vigorous even under the pressures of life
B) often neglect the consequences of inadequate sleep
C) do not know how to relax properly
D) are more unlikely to run into mental problems
4. When sometimes they cannot enjoy adequate sleep, the long sleepers might ____.
A) appear disturbed
B) become energetic
C) feel dissatisfied
D) be extremely depressed
5. Which of the following is Not included in the passage?
A) If one sleeps inadequately, his performance suffers and his memory is weakened
B) The sleep patterns of short sleepers are exactly the sane as those shown by many mental patients
C) Long and short sleepers differ in their attitudes towards sleep
D) Short sleepers would be better off with more rest
“睡眠多的人”情形则大不相同。贝克尔和哈特曼报道说，这些年轻人从小的，有抱负的睡眠就一直很长。他们好像注重睡眠，不让睡眠受打搅。偶尔没 有所需的9个小时夜间卧床休息，他们便会十分不安。他们比“睡眠少的人”要更能回忆得起梦的内容。许多“睡眠多的人”腼腆、焦躁、内向、压抑、消极和稍微 有点儿沮丧，尤其在社交场合缺乏自信。好几个人坦言，睡眠是摆脱每天烦恼的一种方式。